KRONOS is one of the world’s leading manufacturers of titanium dioxide and has been operating as an international company for more than 90 years. The group. KRONOS – Best in class for industrial coatings. KRONOS safety data sheet. Tap for sound. Learn more about KRONOS on KRONOS® is a rutile pigment that can be used universally and provides the highest weather resistance performance for the most demanding coatings. I.
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Titanium dioxide is among the ten most abundant materials on the Earth [ 1 ].
Imaging conditions and image post-processing for pigment sizing for a rutile pigment; a original image superimposed with the outlines of the finally evaluated particle sections kroos grey-value and shape filtering; b unified image after noise reduction and shading correction; c binarised image after application of a watershed transform and connectivity filter; d filtered image b masked with binarised image c ; automated detection applied to image d.
One of the most important properties of titanium dioxide is its UV absorption, which protects human skin against sunburn and skin cancer. In order to establish the proposed method, especially for the sizing of pigment-grade titanium dioxide, the reproducibility of the method was primarily tested.
Scientific efforts to establish standardized methods for determining number-based size distributions have so far been focused on model systems, such as spherical gold particles, spherical latex particles or spherical silica particles [ 7 — 10 ]. The content keonos such third party sites is not within our control, and we cannot and will not take responsibility for the information or content.
The detection of particles sectioned close to the centre of mass or below the centre of mass is precise, both cases are labelled with a 3 in Fig. Proceedings of the Microscopy Conference. Purwin are gratefully acknowledged for their untiring efforts in preparing and measuring numerous samples in order to establish the method presented.
Preferred fields of application for rutile pigments are coatings, paints, plastics and building materials, whereas anatase pigments are mainly used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals or food. A silicon wafer with etched structures is used for calibration of the instrument. Feret particles mean std. A well-prepared sample is the basis for reliable evaluation of the size distribution of a pigment.
In the second step, the images are binarised by using automated grey-value threshold determination [ 22 ]. Visualisation of the systematic challenges in the detection of sectioned particles; a principal possibilities for sectioning a particle; the viewing direction is indicated by the krobos arrow; lines 1 to kroonos indicate section planes through the particle shown; b a representative electron micrograph of a polished section; the numbers given correspond to the sections given exemplarily in part a ; the particles with a coloured envelope are the ones finally detected after grey-value and morphologic filtering.
However, the high reproducibility of the proposed method will certainly allow comparison with any other sizing method, as long as a krpnos or standard for this purpose is present. The license is subject to the Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology terms and conditions: These TEM tomogram-based data illustrate the fundamental problem associated with number-based particle size measurements: The first step ensures comparability, not only within the set of images of one sample, but also between different samples or even between samples measured on different instruments with varying detector settings or noise levels.
The typical obstacles in the characterization of industrial materials, such as irregular particle shapes [ 11 ], a broad size distribution [ 12 ] and strong aggregation and agglomeration effects [ 13 — 14 ], have not been addressed successfully. All filters used are standard filters implemented in the software.
The result is an obtained kronso error of less than 2 nm and a relative coefficient of variation below 1. J Miner Mater Charact Eng. A highly reproducible, statistically tested method for the sizing of pigment-grade rutile and anatase is established.
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As a consequence, the measurement used here does not correspond to a projected area of the particles, but to a section through the particles.
Uncounted particles labelled with a 3 are filtered out as non-primary particles due to their shape. The sample preparation procedure summarised above leads krnoos a sample with a high pigment density and allows imaging of several thousand pigments within a set of approx. This is attributed to a less regular shape konos a consequence of the production process.
The correlation between a measured size distribution and the “real” size distribution kronoe the subject of so-called stereologic correction: It can be seen that grey-value filtering effectively filters those particles that are located fully below section plane 1. The standard error of the method is shown to be below 2 nm for all measured quantities, the relative coefficient of variation being below 1.
Schematic view of five different projections of one agglomerate found in KRONOSreproduced from an kroonos tomogram.
Sample preparation A well-prepared sample is the basis for reliable evaluation of the size distribution of a pigment.
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For the intended purpose, i. ECD particles mean std. Scientific efforts towards standardized number-based sizing methods have so far been concentrated on model systems, such as spherical gold or silica nanoparticles. It also has very good dispersibility that enables production of high-gloss coatings with little gloss haze.