Fig.3 AgNOR staining with peripheral blood lymphocytes. . The technical aspect of AgNOR staining procedure should be carefully dealt with. Attention should. Conclusions: AgNOR staining can be considered as a useful adjunct to adjunct procedures which can diagnose malignancy at the earliest. Silver staining results are comparable to those obtained. [A standardized AgNOR stain method for formalin fixed and paraffin embedded .. to be a good adjunct to presently available frozen section techniques and cytology.

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We also recommend the use of modified AgNOR staining for obtaining sound and confidant results in agnorr paraffin sections. Their size and number reflect nucleolar and cell proliferative activity of tumours Derenzini et al. Received Aug 12; Accepted Nov They should appear yellow to light brown and nucleoli brown.

Modified method of AgNOR staining for tissue and interpretation in histopathology

Courses and Science Pictures. Int J Exp Pathol. We selected 60 samples, 10 samples each of normal brain tissue, reactive gliosis, pilocytic astrocytoma, astrocytoma grade II, astrocytoma grade III, and glioblastoma multiform grade IV astrocytoma. We ztaining that modified AgNOR staining technique is simple, quick and reliable to evaluate cell proliferation by detecting AgNORs size and dispersion.

Solution B It comprised silver nitrate and deionized water.

Modified method of AgNOR staining for tissue and interpretation in histopathology

The tissue was then incubated in acid alcohol three parts ethanol: These results are consistent with the findings of Khan et al. If necessary apply another drop of silver nitrate solution on top. Jpn J Human Genet 25, sttaining This method gives excellent contrast, but you have to cope with a little bit of xylene smell. AgNOR dots size and dispersion are clearly visible. AgNOR, astrocytoma, astrogliosis, glioblastoma multiform, gold chloride, neutral red, sodium thiosulphate.


Typing of AgNOR size and dispersion was also found to be an easy and reproducible alternative to traditional AgNOR counts for differentiating malignant from non-malignant effusions.

We also pay words of praise for all who helped us in performing laboratory works, writing paper, checking statistics and references. Incubate slides in borate buffer for min to wash slides from remaining acetic acid, and to adjust for a high pH which is favourable for silver staining. The nuclei stain light yellow and out line of nuclei as well as cells were usually clearly visible. The grading of dots dispersion qgnor performed according to Khan et al.


Patterns of argyrophilic nucleolar organiser regions in pleural and peritoneal effusions. This was prepared by mixing one part by volume of solution A with two parts by volume of solution B and it was filtered through filter paper into plastic bottle and used immediately because it degrades immediately.

Four-micron unstained sections were obtained from the selected areas of tissue to perform the silver staining.

A total of 60 brain specimens were stained with modified AgNOR technique. Two counts were performed. The correlation of two argyophilic nucleolar organizer region counting method with bromodeoxyuridine-labeling index: There are different methods of AgNOR staining.

Nucleolar and argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region counts in urothelial carcinomas with special emphasis on grade II tumors. The AgNORs appeared as black discrete dots in a pale yellow stained nucleus of astrocytes. This count was believed to represent proliferative activity. Nucleolar organiser regions NORs are defined as nucleolar components containing a set of argyrophilic proteins, which are selectively stained by silver methods.

Our results are in accordance with studies on bladder carcinoma and multiple myeloma showing association between mean AgNOR count and histological grade of differentiation Pich et al. Cytoplasmic granules, organelles and neuroendocrine. Abstract This study was conducted in the department of Pathology King Edward Medical University, from June to December to introduce the new method of AgNOR staining and its interpretation to increase its reliability.


The mean dispersion of AgNOR per cell in normal tissue and reactive gliosis was nil, while low in low-grade astrocytoma and high in high-grade astrocytoma mean 1. Alternatively, you can examine the slides directly with immersion oil. All the sections were stained for Haematoxylin and eosin by two competent histopathologists using the technique by Bukhari et al. Haematoxylin and eosin staining All the sections were stained for Haematoxylin and eosin by two competent histopathologists using the technique by Bukhari et al.

Silver Staining for Nucleolar Organizer Regions

There was moderate to high variation in the size of AgNOR dots in high grade astrocytoma mean 1. The AgNOR dots have become blurred due to dim background and less clearly visible when compared with photomicrograph a. A number of studies carried out in different tumour types demonstrated that malignant cells frequently present a greater AgNOR protein amount than corresponding non-malignant cells.

AgNORs can be identified as black dots in the nuclei. For quick results sstaining at C for min. Indeed, the absolute AgNOR scores reported by different authors for the same types of tumour are scarcely comparable and the results produced by these investigations sometimes seem to be conflicting.

Cancer Genet Cytogenet 35, There was non-to mild variation in the size of AgNOR dots in low grade astrocytoma mean 0. If black precipitate occurs, slides were not clean or the silver nitrate solution was contaminated. Procedurf are aware that morphometric quantitative analysis for AgNOR dots should be performed; however, the technique is rather expensive and, unfortunately, is not available in our laboratory.